玩耍是如何随着年龄变化的?Play Through the Ages

儿童在玩耍的时候不断重复,所有的一切都给他们真实的人生打上了烙印。

——西格蒙·弗洛伊德

“Children repeat in their play, everything that has made an impression on them in real life” – Sigmund Freud

这是个很强有力的陈述,不知道你是否这样认为呢?在我们之前的文章中,我们看到了各种玩耍的类型,并试图给玩耍下个定义——一个复杂的适应系统。

Quite a powerful statement, don’t you think? In our previous blog, we looked at the various examples of play and attempted to define what play is a complex adaptive system.

 

随着这个系列的逐步深入,我们会一起了解孩子的成长中经历的不同认知阶段,而玩耍也在随之变化。孩子们的成长是很快的,其实玩耍也是。玩耍会和孩子一起随着时间的推移不断进化,并成为他们人格的重要部分。

As we move forward with this series we will look at how play changes in children as they grow older and move through the many stages of cognitive development. Children grow up fast and so does their play, it evolves with them over time and will hopefully stay with them their whole lives and make it an important part of who they are as a person as Freud eludes to.

乔治·赫伯特·米德是深入研究儿童玩耍的社会学先驱之一。他提出了儿童在玩耍中形成“自我”的概念。今天,我们会用到他提出的儿童三大发展阶段理论。

George Herbert Mead was one of the first to look in depth at the way children develop and establish a sense of ‘self'. George's studies are mainly in the field of sociology, but what we're going to be using is his suggestion that children move through 3 different stages of development.

 

  • 准备阶段 0-3岁 The Preparatory Stage 0-3 Years

 

无论你是否相信,这个阶段从宝宝出生就开始,一直持续到他们三岁的时候。在这三年中会发生很多事情,而且会为他们一生的玩耍打下基础,而这一切是如何发生的呢?答案是是通过模仿。这个年龄段的宝宝在了解自己的身体如何移动,也在探索他们周围的环境。而他们的社会交往要靠他们对自己所见所闻所感的模拟。

Believe it or not this stage starts from birth and ranges all the way to 3 years old! While a lot can happen in these 3 years it's this primary stage that builds fundamentals for a lifetime of play, but how? Through imitation. Babies of this age are exploring the world around them and learning how to move in their bodies, but their social interactions rely on being able to imitate what they see, feel and hear.

对于宝宝来说,模拟是表达对现有知识的理解和尝试理解新知识的重要方式,也是他们的动作、认知和社交技能进步的重要指示。(Jones, 2009)

Imitation is an expression of understanding of current knowledge but also of apprehension for new knowledge and are key indicators of the child's developing motor, cognitive and social skills (Jones, 2009). 

在这一阶段你能做什么呢?多花时间和孩子一起玩耍,就是这么简单。在你的一天中抽出一些时间来和家里的小婴儿玩耍。这宝贵的三年需要被好好利用,你可以在孩子同样的高度和他们一起玩耍。他们会很开心,也会试着模仿一些动作,这可以帮助他们之后各方面的发展。

What can you do at this stage? Spend time playing. It’s as simple as that, take some time out of your day to spend playing with the infant in your family, it’s so important to make the most of these years and get on their level and play with them, they’ll laugh and enjoy this time and also imitate some actions that will help in all aspects of their development.

 

  • 玩耍阶段 3-5岁 Play Stage 3-5 Years

如果说准备阶段是关于模仿的话,这个阶段就是关于行动!在这个阶段中,孩子会进行不同形式的角色扮演,而且用各种故事和叙事手法来表达他们日渐增长的想象力。这个阶段的孩子学会了如何表达自己,并开始想要理解何为玩耍,为何玩耍。

If the preparatory stage was all about imitation, then this stage is all about doing! Here children engage in multiple forms of role play, they begin to make stories and complex narratives to express their growing imagination. They being to express themselves and want to understand the how’s and whys of play.

这个阶段中孩子通过假扮来把他们的实际生活经验结合到玩耍中来。我们可以把假扮定义为表演故事,这些故事中包括了很多不同的观点,和对想法和感情的有趣的使用。

At this stage children want to use their real-life experiences to form their periods of play, they pretend. We can define pretend as the acting out of stories which involve multiple perspectives and the playful manipulation of ideas and emotions (Kaufman& Singer 2012).

很重要的一点是对于这一阶段的孩子来说理解和遵守规则并不容易。对于他们来说,周围的世界依然是混乱和充满变化的。比起让他们遵守设定好的规则,他们更喜欢随着游戏的进行来创造规则。有多少次,在和四岁的孩子玩耍的过程中,你发现他们从一个很简单的概念中想象和延伸?

What’s also important here is that rules and structure are very difficult for a child to understand and adhere to, the world is still chaotic and ever-changing to them, they often like to make it up as they go along because for them it’s far more engaging than trying to stick to rules that they can’t yet understand, how many times have you played with a 4-year-old and they innovate from a very basic concept?

我们可以让这个年纪的孩子开始接触运动。虽然运动确实是充满了规则和限制,但是如果有合适的项目,和了解儿童早期发展的专业人员,孩子可以从运动中得到很多益处。这一阶段的玩耍中,我们主要关注玩耍的基本原则,和促进孩子与人交往。

Introduction to a sport is also possible at this age, while it’s true that sports are defined by rules and regulations, with the right program with professionals who understand the concepts of early childhood development sport can really have a benefit for a young child. At this stage, it’s not about technical development or even understanding the sport! It’s about the key principles of play and social interaction.

 

  • 游戏阶段 6-9岁 Game Stage 6-9 Years

在儿童发展探索的这一阶段,他们已经会玩耍了。不仅如此,他们还应该花不少时间玩耍。随着他们自我意识和对周围世界理解的形成,玩耍会和之前的简单模仿和角色扮演有所区别。

By this stage in a child's developmental adventure, they're able to play and should be using a large portion of their time playing. As they’re now becoming conscious of their own ‘self’ and those around them the concept of play begins to take a different shape and becomes about more than just imitation and pretend.

这一阶段中,孩子有了更好的群体意识,也可以理解规则和界限,他们可以开始在更加复杂的框架中玩耍,而且可以感受到来自同辈的压力和期待等等。有了规则的概念,孩子们可以开始参与有秩序的运动。这时候,玩耍开始渐渐成型,也变得更容易辨认。

Their awareness of a larger social group and an understanding of rules and boundaries means that children can start to play in more complex systems and can feel things such as peer pressure and expectations. Now with rules children can start to participate in organized sport, play starts to take more of a format and becomes more recognizable.

这种“容易辨认”的玩耍形式也依然充满变化。一个六岁可能会尽力在游戏的规则和限制中参与,但是他们的注意力还是很可能分散。但是到了八岁,孩子就已经能够专注技术和技巧的提高了。看到这个过程中的变化,我们能更清晰的感受到孩子的成长和变化,也能够看着这一过程中玩耍随之改变的过程。

The 'recognizable' form of play can still vary, think of a 6-year-old that can still get easily distracted but also manages to stay within the boundaries of the game, compared with an 8-year-old who’s fully focused on developing their skill or technique. Seeing this in action helps us realize how children grow over time and how their play grows with them. 

 

接下来是什么?What’s Next?

 

在这篇文章中,我们仿佛见证了玩耍的发展——从新生儿对世界的探索到一个九岁的孩子参与有秩序的运动。在孩子参与运动的过程中,他们会开始和教练的互动,而这又是玩耍的的一个重要阶段。一个孩子可能会把教练当成一个能力更强的他人,来让他们仰视和学习。和教练的互动对孩子一生中的玩耍都有着重要的影响。我们会在本系列的最后一篇文章中对这一主题做更详细的讨论。

We've traveled through play from a newborn learning about the world all the way to a 9-year-old playing in organized sports. With organized sport comes the interaction with a coach and the continued evolution of play, another major step in the journey of play, a coach can be seen by a young child as a more ‘capable’ other, someone who you look up to and learn from (Vygotsky). This has a significant impact on how children learn and play for the rest of their lives, and it is something we will explore in greater detail in part 3.

 

Reference List


http://sociologyinfocus.com/2016/01/rules-what-rules-meads-3-stage-role-taking-process/

https://study.com/academy/lesson/george-herbert-meads-stages-of-self-and-development-in-toddlers.html

https://study.com/academy/lesson/zone-of-proximal-development-and-scaffolding-in-the-classroom.html

https://sandratrappen.com/2013/10/07/the-concept-of-play-and-child-development/

W. D. Abernethy, Theory Into Practice. Vol. 13, No. 4, The Value of Play for Learning (Oct. 1974), pp. 310-316

https://www.jstor.org/stable/1475892?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2865075/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/beautiful-minds/201203/the-need-pretend-play-in-child-development

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