玩耍有12种,你都知道吗?一张信息图带你了解!

玩耍有多少种?当说出玩耍的时候,你第一个会想到什么?今天,我们用一张信息图带你了解玩耍的不同种类和不同阶段。

The following infographic shows 12 different types of PLAY.

 

 

其中,我们想更详细的说明其中的几个,他们虽然有着重要的作用,却常常会被忽视。

As you can see play manifests in many forms and at different developmental stages, but let’s elaborate a little on several stages of play:

 

旁观者阶段

相信你也曾经见过一个孩子坐在场边看着其他孩子玩耍,这种情况下,你会认为他在玩耍吗?作为旁观者进行观察吸收其实是学习的一个重要阶段。事实上,默默观察评估所处的环境是儿童天性的一部分。很多家长尽管是出于好意,但是可能会给正在通过观察进行学习的孩子施加一定的压力。在观察中,孩子已经在头脑中开始玩耍了,在此过程中他们可以通过模仿其他孩子的感情和动作进行学习。孩子经过自主的观察和判断选择进行某种活动时,他们的自信心、独立性和主动性都可以得到培养。

Onlooker:

If you saw a kid sitting down on the sideline watching other kids play football, would you say that they are in a state of ‘play’? Play as an onlooker is a vital stage of learning. We shouldn't expect all kids to jump right into a new activity.  It is natural for some kids to show caution and make an initial assessment of what is happening before they commit.  Sometimes parents with good intentions may be a little pushy without realising it. Observing is a form of mental play, and kids can learn through mimicry of other children’s emotions and actions. Furthermore, in terms of building confidence, independence, and intrinsic motivation, it is much more powerful if the child decides to participate in a game of their own accord. Patience, encouragement and opportunities to get involved are key during this integration phase.

 

平行游戏阶段:

有时候,小朋友虽然坐在一起,但是各玩各的。这种情况下大人可能会认为他们没有互动,然而事实并非如此。儿童的空间意识其实是很强的。所以当他们在进行平行玩耍时,虽然看起来他们的注意力集中在玩具上,但是他们会开始跟旁边的小朋友进行一些小小的互动。可能从偷偷看对面的小朋友一眼,或者挪挪位置给其他小朋友腾出地方开始,但是其实他们已经开始最初步的社交活动了。

Parallel Play:

Just because children are playing independently in the same area does not mean they’re not interacting. Kids are very aware of sharing space or 'the psychology of space', and despite concentrating on a specific task or toy, they will still interact with neighboring kids. It might be a glance up at another child or a small movement to create space in a circle so another kid can sit down. This parallel play is the beginning of the social play.

 

合作游戏阶段

当孩子们为了同一个目标齐心协力的时候,他们已经进入了合作游戏的阶段。在这些游戏中,他们会集中资源、集思广益,共同达成他们目标。合作游戏对小朋友沟通、妥协的能力都非常重要。同时,因为在合作中每个小朋友都有自己的角色和责任,合作游戏也能提高小朋友的自信心。更重要的是,合作游戏中孩子们可以学会公平、分享和同理心。

Cooperative Play:

When children unite to achieve a common goal, they are engaging in collaborative play. They combine resources and brainpower to reach their objective. Collaborative play is excellent for developing communication and compromise skills. It also boosts confidence as every child has a role and responsibility. Furthermore, cooperative play teaches children the importance of fairness, sharing, and empathy.

 

运动型游戏:

运动型游戏主要的关注是动作和能量。运动型游戏的范围十分广泛,既包括了竞技运动,也包括了探索自然,还包括了在游乐场上的玩耍。运动型游戏的益处十分显著,包括降低肥胖率、刺激头脑发育、促进肌肉发展。此外,运动还能培养孩子的运动能力、协调能力,并让他们学会如何释放压力。最重要的是,积极运动可以让你的孩子养成受益终身的健康习惯。

Physical Play: 

Physical play is all about movement and energy. It can include competitive sports, nature exploration, and playground fun. Benefits include fighting obesity, stimulating brain development, developing gross motor skills and coordination, and stress relief. Furthermore, active play nurtures healthy habits that can lead to lifelong health.

在 SoccerGym, 我们希望孩子在学中玩,在玩中学。因此 SoccerGym 的训练课程紧紧围绕着这个理念设计和开展:“Learn to play. Play to learn.”

SoccerGym 将在九月推出一系列关于玩耍PLAY的文章,用科学来指导孩子更好地玩耍,并在玩耍中收获更多。如果你对这个主题有兴趣,欢迎关注我们的系列文章,并留言告诉我们你感兴趣的问题。


 

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