运动对孩子的好处,可不只是锻炼身体那么简单!

在上一篇关于玩耍的文章《一起来了解:玩耍是如何随着年龄变化的?》中,我们讨论了儿童发展不同阶段中玩耍的发展和变化。今天,让我们继续这个话题,来探讨一下不同运动之间的联系和技能之间的转化,和他们的儿童整体发展的帮助。

In part 2 we established that play varies through the development stages of a child's life; preparatory, play, and game stages. Now we can look at how play in different sports can transfer to each other and further compliment development.

首先,让我们看看我们能不能够把运动再细分一下,根据 sportanddev.com 的定义,运动时“范围超过了竞技运动的体育活动,包含了所有能够促进身体健康的形式:玩耍、休闲、有组织的、非正式或者竞技性的运动。”在这篇文章中,我们将分析两种形式:个体运动和团体运动。

Firstly, according to sportanddev.com a sport can be defined as ‘physical activities that go beyond competitive sports, these include all forms that contribute to physical fitness that includes: play, recreation, organized, casual or competitive sport.’ For the purposes of this blog, we’re going to analyze two forms of sport; individual and team sports.

团队运动感在本质上就需要一个“团队”,通常还有围绕着特定得分目标的一系列规则,这些规则和界限有很多进行试验和不同操作的空间。让我们一起来看看世界上最常见的两种团队运动——足球和篮球。如你在图中所见,每种对参与的要求都非常低。通常只需要一片空间、一个球和运动员们就够了。

Play in a team sport requires a ‘team' and usually a set of rules built around a particular scoring objective. Within these rules and boundaries, the game is open to experimentation and manipulation. To help us understand play in team sports let's take a look at two of the most common sports in the world; football (soccer) and basketball. Each sport has very minimal requirements to play as you can see in the pictures. Quite often just space, a ball, and some players are needed.

足球需要的只有一个球和一个进行游戏的表面(各种表面都可以),从巴西的沙滩到英国的硬砖路,足球随时随地都可以玩。篮球则需要可以弹的球和球网,所以并不是在任何地方都能玩。但是有了政府和私人的资金支持,还是很容易找到合适的场地的。

Football requires nothing more than a ball and playing surfaces (of any kind).  From the beaches in Brazil to the hard brick and concrete streets of Europe, football can be played anywhere at any time! Basketball, on the other hand, requires a net and a ball that can bounce and it is more difficult to just play anywhere. However, as a result of government and private funding initiatives, it’s quite easy to find a court to play on.

个体运动则是由一人完成的,通常教练团队会进行指导,来让个体发挥出最好的表现,但是最终动作的完成还是回到某个个体的身上。

Individual sports are played by one person, usually with a coaching team behind them to help get the best in their performance but ultimately it comes down to one person performing.

个体运动之间可以看起来差别很大,举例来说,在武术中有一种技巧叫做“影子格斗”,这一技巧主要指的是用想象来模拟情景。体操艺术则看起来更像是一系列技巧的获得,但实际上是一种实验,不断地探索之前学过的动作的边界所在。

Play in an individual sport might look totally different depending on the sport, in martial arts, for example, they use a lot of ‘shadow' techniques where imagination is used to simulate scenarios. In gymnastics, play can look a lot like skill acquisition but is actually a form of experimentation and stretching previously learned actions.

在我们讨论的四种运动当中,你注意到了什么呢?是的,其中两个是团体运动,而两个是个体运动,但是再仔细想想,你还注意到了什么呢?这四张照片中的小朋友在进行四种不同的体育活动。这里玩耍是有目的性,也有实验性的,并且有着不同的目标,有的是技巧的习得,有的则是竞争。但是很显然的是,运动通常能给参与者带来某种目的或结果。

What do you notice about the four sports chosen above for our study? Yes, two involve a team and two are individual but look a little deeper, what are you seeing? These images are taken from young children ‘playing’ in different sports. Play here is deliberate and experimental and can have wide-ranging goals and objectives whether it's skill acquisition or competition. What is obvious is that play in a sport usually leads to some kind of goal or outcome for the participant.

而这些运动的共性则是他们可以在某些方面补足其他运动。让我们再仔细想想,这里的每项运动能带给我们什么益处呢?

What all these sports have in common is that they complement each other in several ways. Let's break down each sport given above and note some of the key benefits of each:

看着上面的表格,让我们想想这里的哪些技能能被转化到其他运动上,而哪些不能。我们是不是可以说这其中大部分甚至全部的基恩感都可以被转化到其他运动上呢?在巴西柔术中学到的先思考再行动,其实和在足球篮球中在压力下保持镇定,快速做出正确决策是一样的道理。运动中的可转化技能并不是一个新的概念,甚至对求职和雇佣产生了影响。英国体育部通过研究给出了一项清单,包含了可以从体育转化到职场的十项技能。(详情:http://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/2016/11/01/top-10-crossover-skills. )这项清单包含了诸如适应能力、沟通能力、恢复能力和求胜的意志等多种重要能力。

Looking at the list above think to yourself about which key benefits could be transferred from one sport to another. Is it fair to say that most if not all of those skills could be easily transferred to another sport? The idea of teaching the mind before muscle from Brazilian Jujitsu, for example, could relate to being calm under pressure and making fast/good decisions in sports like football or basketball. The idea of transferable skills in sport is not new and also apply to the world of work. UK Sport has undertaken research into creating a top 10 list of skills that sport can help within the world of employment: http://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/2016/11/01/top-10-crossover-skills. Skills such us adaptability, communication, ability to recover, and a winning mentality to name a few.

想象一下,体操和瑜伽能够如何帮助一个足球运动员的灵活性、协调性和平衡?曼联的传奇球员瑞恩吉格斯就把他长寿的足球生涯归功于瑜伽和体操的练习。他说“它(瑜伽和体操)对我每日的训练很有帮助,而且给我了比赛和训练需要的灵活性和耐力。”而他只是进行第二项运动来帮助自己的主要训练的许多人之一。

Furthermore, consider the benefits of doing specific sports like gymnastics & yoga alongside football in relation to developing flexibility, coordination, and balance, and consequently injury prevention. Manchester United legend Ryan Giggs actually credits yoga and gymnastics to the prolonging of his career, he says; "It helps me train every day and has given me the flexibility and strength not only to play the game but to train as well" he is one of many athletes that use the second sport to complement and enhance performance.

进行多种运动能给身体带来的机能上的提升是显而易见的,不过进行另一项运动最大的优点之一就是让年轻人体验另一种不同的人际关系。在新的环境、规则、教练风格、和运动机械中,他们可以学着与他人建立新的联系、进行新的交往。

The physical development opportunities are quite obvious from playing multiple sports, but probably the biggest benefit of playing a range of sports is the social interactions that kids can experience. Trying a second sport helps kids build relationships in a different environment with different game rules, coaching styles, playing equipment and challenges.

举例来说,在柔术中,他们会和一个搭档一起训练,而训练中他们会尝试把搭档打倒,或者控制住自己的搭档。这就需要搭档相互之间的理解,和感谢对方为自己的进步作出的贡献。在柔术中,需要有很强的自我意识,并在压力下做出并执行一个好的决定。与之相对的是,在篮球或者足球中,他们会以一个团队的身份来设计策略,击垮对手。在这个过程中,他们想到的则是“我们怎么用我们的技巧来主宰我们的对手?”或者“我在团队中究竟扮演了什么角色?”。这些运动能够提供交流和相互协作的独特机会。

For example, in Jiu-Jitsu they’ll be working with a partner to take them down and try to control them. This action takes not only a huge amount of understanding and appreciation of their partner and the role they play in their development but also the self-awareness and clarity of thought to make and execute good decisions under pressure. Compare that to basketball or football where they’ll be working in a team to devise a strategy to break down their opponents and be asked questions such as: “how do we use our unique skills to dominate our opponents?” or "what is our specific roles within this team?” this presents unique opportunities to communicate and work together. 

体育通过挑战青少年,让他们成为有适应性的、谦虚的人。在运动中学到的人生技能是独特的,而且在生活的其他方面不容易被复制。这也正是为什么对于青少年来说,运动是如此的重要,并且对他们的人生有着深远的影响。

This challenges them to be adaptable and humble people. The life skills taught from play in sport are unique and in often cases can’t be replicated in other aspects of life, that’s why this journey of play is so important in a young person’s life and will have a lasting impact on them as they grow up.

好好运动!天天向上!

Play for life!

 

ReferenceList:

Côté, J., Baker, J., & Abernethy, B. (2003). From play to practice: A developmental framework for the acquisition of expertise in team sports. InJ.L. Starkes & K.A. Ericsson (Eds.), Recent advances in research sports expertise  (pp. 89–110). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 

Côté, J., Baker, J., & Abernethy, B. (2007). Play and practice in the development of sports expertise. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbooksportsportpsychology (pp. 184–202). Hoboken, NJ: JohnWiley & Sons. 

https://www.sportanddev.org/en/learn-more/what-sport-and-development/what-sport-0

https://www.livestrong.com/article/147567-what-are-the-benefits-of-soccer-for-kids/

https://www.activekids.com/parenting-and-family/articles/8-benefits-for-kids-who-play-basketball

https://www.stk-sport.co.uk/gymnastics-science-health-benefits-of-gymnastics.html

http://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/2016/11/01/top-10-crossover-skills

https://www.theguardian.com/football/2012/mar/27/ryan-giggs-yoga-manchester-united

http://www.playgymnastics.com/parent/child-development/three-reasons-why-gymnastics-helps-boys-play-in-other-sports/

https://www.jiujitsutimes.com/transferable-skills-martial-arts-jiu-jitsu-taught-better-employee/

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